Monday, January 31, 2011

PTDF MSc Past Questions

I see that there is some interest in the PTDF MSc Past Questions section of this blog (naturally) so here are a few past questions. The 2010 exam was the first internet-based (hence objective-based) exam; these others are theory-based. They should give you a heads-up still:


PART THREE
SECTION F (2002)

ANSWER ALL QESTIONS
TIME ALLOWED: 55 MINUTES

1.Define the following terms:
i. Petroleum
ii. Bitumen
iii. Formation Volume Factor
iv. Structural Closure
v. Porosity
vi. Kerogen

2. In what ways can organic matter diagenesis be
monitored?

3. Classify the following porosity types into primary
and secondary: Chalky, Fracture, Intercrystal,
Fenestral, Moldic and Intraparticle.

4. Briefly describe and classify the following types
of traps:
i. Normal fault
ii. Buttress sand
iii. Rollover anticline on growth fault
iv. Compaction anticline

5. Indicate which of the following possible answers
are true ( there may be more than one).

a) if a source rock generates petroleum and migration
fails to occur, we then have (i) Sapropel (T F)
(ii) Tar Deposit (T F) (iii) Oil Shale (T F)
(iv) Pyrobitumen (T F).

b) Asphaltenes are:
(i) Paraffinic hydrocarbons (T F) (ii) present in
crude oil (T F) (iii) Precipitated by n-pentane (T
F) (iv) Rich in nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen
containing compounds (T F).

6. Distinguish btw an arkosic reservoir rock and a quartzose reservoir rock.

7. Give 4 conditions under which the SP log is not good.

8. Briefly assess the role of temperature and time in petroleum generation.

9. Write a short note on the direct evidence for a biological origin for carbon in crude oil.

10. The viscosity of a crude oil depends on (i)
---------------- and (ii) --------------

PART THREE
SECTION B (2003)

1. Differentiate btw resource base, resource and
reserves in oil and gas industry.

2. Distinguish carefully btw LNG, LPG and NGL.

3. What is oilfield processing? Name 3 different
categories of oilfield processing operations and
discuss each one briefly.

4. What is the formation evaluation and why is it
important in the search of oil and gas?

5. List and discuss the parameters commonly used to
characterize crude oils.

6. Explain why petroleum refining processes are
generally into separation, conversion, treatment and
finishing.

7. Define enhanced oil recovery and what are the major
features associated with its utilization in the oil
fields.

8. Give an account of recent major gas utilization
projects operations in Nigeria.

9. Why is phase behaviour an important consideration
in reservoir and oil well operation?

10. Write the general form of Stoke’s law and define
the parameters.



PART THREE

SECTION C (2003)

1. Write a short note on the direct evidence for
biological origin of carbon in crude oil.

2. Describe the possible migration mechanism at depths
greater than 6000 feet.

3. Explain why Gamma Ray Log is a shale log.

4. Define the following terms (i) Wet gas (ii)
Structural Closure (iii) Buttress sand (iv) Pour
Point.

5. Why are carbonate reservoirs associated with high
sulphur crude oils?

6. (a) Define the terms (i) hydrostatic pressure (ii)
lithostatic pressure
(b) Two dry wells (A & B) were drilled into an
acquifer of a reservoir rock that contains gas. The
bottom hole pressure (BHP) for well A was 1600 psi at
3600 feet. For well B, the BHP was 2300 psi at 4650
feet. If well C encounters a gas reservoir at 2000
feet and 1500 psi pressure, what is the elevation of
the gas water contact?

7. (a) An exploration well was drilled in a basin to a
total depth (TD) of 10500 feet. The maximum
temperature recorded was 290oF and the wellhead
elevation was 90 feet. Assuming a mean surface
temperature of 80Of. Calculate the geothermal
gradient. (b) if the well penetrated a thick shale bed
at 8550 feet, what is its formation temperature. (c)
Is this shale capable of generating Petroleum? Give
reasons for your answer.

8. (a) What do you understand by the term
‘differential entrapment’?
(b) How does organic matter distribution in deltas
affect the distribution of oil and gas in deltaic
settings?



PART THREE
SECTION B ( 2002 )

ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS
TIME ALLOWED: 55MIN

1. What are drilling fluids? List four important functions of drilling muds.

2. Sulphur content in crude oil varies from 0.05 – 7.0% by weight. Suggest a source of the high concentration of sulphur in oil.

3. Stoke’s law may be used to calculate the minimum mud velocity required to raise rock chips during drilling operations. Write the general form of Stoke’s Law and define each of the parameters.

4. How can Mollier (enthalpy-entropy) charts be used
in the design of compressors and refrigeration charts?

5. List the possible causes of productivity decline in
oil and gas wells and suggest possible solutions.

6. A well has a diameter of one foot and a drainage
radius of 660 feet. It penetrates a 25 feet thick sand
which contains an undersaturated crude oil whose
average viscosity above the bubble point is 1.60 cp
and whose formation volume factor Be is 1.623 bbl/STB.
The permeability of the formation to oil is 53md

a. At what rate ( STB/D) will the well produce under a
200 psc drawdown.
b. What is the productivity index in STB/D/psi of the
well at this settled rate of production and pressure
drawdown.
c. If the shut-in bottom hole pressure was 4000 psi, estimate the flowing well bore pressure.

Given
i. Assume incompressible fluid flow
ii. The steady state radial flow “q” of an
incompressible fluid towards a vertical borewell of
radius rw with drainage is
Q = 2Tkhrerw(Pe –Pw)divided by Beu(re-rw)

where T is pi and u is mui as in greek. ( Emeka pls try to decode this formular I believe u can, I had no time to properly write them)

7. List the processes involved in the refining of crude oil.

8. Ideal processes are reversible but practical processes require q degree of irreversibility. Briefly comment on this statement with reference to natural gas liquefaction process.

The Part 2 questions (English Essay questions) include these areas:


• Privatization
• Oil and Gas
o Environmental sustainability in the Nigerian oil
industry
o Law and development of gas in Nigeria
o Impact of the discovery of oil on the Nigerian
economy
o Legal issues in UN’s approach to ownership n control
of natural recourses and wealth
o Effect of heavy reliance of nig economy on
mono-products. Suggest solutions
o Plate tectonics
o Deregulation of down stream
o Posted price of crude oil
• Economics
o Ways of measuring national income
o Attributes of money
o Difference btw GNP and GDP
o Commercial banking
o Why taxing
o Role of CBN in commercial and merchant banks
o Relevance of being OPEC member
o International trade to economic growth
o Unemployment in Nigeria
• Environmental impact
o Gas flaring
o Greenhouse effect
o Desertation
o Oil pollution
• IT
o Impact of ICT in production management in developing
countries
o Computer tech as one of the key generators of wealth
in mordern societies today
o Current trends in computer HW and SW development
o Gray code



The first part which is Objective questions are in these areas:



• Legal system in Nigeria
• Oil and gas
o Its contribution to GDP
o Bedrock geology
o When did Nigeria join OPEC
o OPEC headquarters
o Exploration activities for oil began when
o Nigeria’s 1st ship load of LPG to world market when
o West African gas pipelines project
o When will gas flaring stop in Nigeria as set by FG
o Oil producing states in Nigeria
o Volume in liters of 1 barrel of crude oil
o World’s largest producer of crude oil
o Geophysical method used in oil exploration
o Sec generation of UNO
o Current Nigerian rep at OPEC’s board of governors
o Price band on crude oil by OPEC
o First commercial discovery of oil in Nigeria
o Petroleum training institute, Warri, established when?
o NNPC contract types with multinational oil companies
o When UNO was established
o 1 ton of LNG equivalent to how many barrels
• Nigeria Facts
o Main cash crop
o When Nigeria became a republic
o Power to feed Nigeria in MW by NEPA
o Longest river
o Natural vegetation
o Local government number
o Highest point in Nigeria
o First commercial deep water oil discovery in Nigeria
o Expenditure on steel and aluminum
o Oil and gas Acts, Policies etc
o LG system of governance introduced when
o In what year was FID for 1st NLNG signed
o 1st ship load of LPG by chevron/nnpc on what date
o Quality of petroleum determined by what substance?
o Times states were created
o Band on second hand vehicles
o Geophysical methods

• Geography
o Earth is made of what 3 concentric shells
o First man to walk on moon
o Marginal field
o Greatest scientist of the 20th century
o Worlds population – 6 billion
o First capital town of Nigeria
o First executive president of Nigeria
o Why America wants to war iraq
o Oldest University
o Environmental impact assessment
o Greenhouse effect
o Vegetation damage
o Marginal oil fields / indigenous oil companies
o Reserve of tar sand oils in southwestern Nigeria is what size in barrels
o First shipment of crude oil from Nigeria
o Current minister of petroleum resources
o Halley’s comet



• Significant dates

o September 11, 2001
o World environment day
o When Israel was created out of Palestine
o World summit on sustainable development
o Slave trade abolished in England when?
o China became a communist republic when? By who?
o Years of nelson Mandela imprisoment
o First programmable e-computer, colossus, when and
where?
o Worst nuclear power accident in history on 26th
april 1986, where?
• Significant places
o World cups : 2002 korea/japan – Brazil
o Nigerian coaches to world cups:
• Current issues in Nigeria


• Significant people

o Nobel Prize named after who? Alfred Nobel born Oct
21 1833, Swedish chemist and engineer
o Who is Mikhail Gorbachev, reforming leader, why?
o World number 1 female tennis player
• Acronyms
o AIDS
• Economics
o Demand, price, expenditure
o Market models
o Substitution effect
o Economic concept by karl max
o Criminologist
o Studies – ology words
o Latent function
o Sociogram
o Acceptance test
o Business cycle
o GNP
o Dellationary times
o Insurance
o Wage incentives
o Theories of business cycle
o Types of market. OPEC is what type
o Competitive seller


I FAPPED THIS FROM SOMEWHERE, AND THIS IS WHAT THE GUY HAD TO SAY...


Please these questions are not exhaustive, a friend sent them to me, some formulas are not well written and I didn’t have time to format them. Also the objectives and English essay type questions are dynamic, you just have to be prepared. Read them up, some are not clear try ur best to understand what is meant. Learn also of the current events in naija in the past year. the English essay part last yr didn’t include privitisation and the rest, they were more professional like plate tectonics, petroleum formation, environmental issues and the rest listed above. Just try your best to cover as much as you can.

Updated 10 May 2013: More PTDF MSc past questions

General Knowledge

1. THE CURRENT MINISTER OF PETROLEUM RESOURCES IN NIGERIA IS?
A. MRS MODUPE ADELAJA 
B. DR. RILWANU LUKEMAN 
C. DR. JACKSON GAIUS OBASEKI 
D. MRS ALISON MADUEKWE 
E. NONE OF THE ABOVE 

2. 11TH SEPTEMBER 2001 IS GENERALLY REGARDED AS THE DAY THE WORLD CHANGED BECAUSE? 
A. AMERICA WAS ATTACKED AT HOME BY PLANES THAT CRASHED INTO THE TWIN TOWERS AT THE WORLD TRADE CENTRE AND THE PENTAGON 
B. AMERICA AND ALLIES ATTACKED AFGHANISTAN 
C. ISRAEL AND PALESTINIANS LEADERS SIGNED AN AGREEMENT TO WORK TOWARDS PEACE 
D. MEMBERS OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY ADOPTS THE EURO AS THE COMMON CURRENCY 
E. THE DEBT OF THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES CANCELLED BY DONOR COUNTRIES. 

3. WHICH GEOPHYSICAL METHOD IS COMMONLY APPLIED IN DETAILED REGIONAL STUDY OF SEDIMENTARY BASINS FOR SUBSURFACE SEQUENCE DELINEATION AND STRUCTURAL MAPPING IN OIL EXPLORATION? 
A. AIRBORNE GRAVITY SURVEY 
B. SEISMIC REFLECTION 
C. AERO MAGNETIC SURVEY 
D. SEISMIC REFRACTION 
E. GROUND PENETRATING RADAR 

4. MAO TSE-TUNG PROCLAIMED CHINA A COMMUNIST REPUBLIC ON?
A. 26TH MAY 1948 
B. 10TH JULY 1925 
C. 1ST OCTOBER 1949 
D. 27TH JULY 1946 
E. 1ST SEPTEMBER 1939 

5. NELSON MANDELA WAS FREED FROM VICTOR VERSTER PRISON NEAR CAPE TOWN ON 11TH FEBRUARY 1990 AFTER HOW MANY YEARS IMPRISONMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA GOVERNMENT?
A. 18 
B. 27 
C. 35 
D. 30 
E. 10 

6. WHEN AND WHERE WAS THE FIRST PROGRAMMABLE ELECTRONIC COLOSSUS, PUT INTO OPERATION? 
A. 1940, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY ENGLAND 
B. 1945, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA USA 
C. 1948, KREMLIN MOSCOW 
D. 1943, BLETCHLEY PARK, ENGLAND 
E. 1941, BERLIN, GERMANY 

7. MIKHAIL GORBACHEV IS REGARDED AS THE REFORMING USSR LEADER BECAUSE?
A. HE INTRODUCED DEMOCRACY TO USSR 
B. HE DESTROYED THE COMMUNIST PARTY 
C. HE INTRODUCED THE PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT TO THE USSR 
D. HE INTRODUCED TWO POLICIES, PERESTROIKA, AND GLASNOST TO USSR 
E. HE PERMITTED THE BREAKDOWN OF THE BERLIN WALL 

8. THE WORLD’S NUMBER ONE FEMALE LAWN TENNIS PLAYER IS? 
A. SERENA WILLIAMS 
B. VENUS WILLIAMS 
C. MONICA SELES 
D. STEPHI GRAF 
E. MARTINA NAVRATILOVA 

9. HALLEY’S COMMET RETURNS TO THE CENTER OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM ONCE EVERY? 
A. 55 YEARS 
B. 76 YEARS 
C. 112 YEARS 
D. 44 YEARS 
E. 67 YEARS 

10. WHEN WAS THE FIRST SHIPMENT OF CRUDE OIL FROM NIGERIA MADE? 
A. 28TH FEBRUARY 1956 
B. 17TH FEBRUARY 1958 
C. 29TH SEPTEMBER 1960 
D. 16TH JANUARY 1951 
E. 6TH JUNE 1955 

11. WHAT DAY OF THE YEAR IS WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY?
A. 1ST APRIL
B. 23RD MARCH
C. 5TH JUNE
D. 10TH OCTOBER
E. 29TH JULY

12. WHEN WAS THE OLDEST UNIVERSITY IN NIGERIA ESTABLISHED?
A. 1948
B. 1960
C. 1962
D. 1936
E. 1952

13. THE QUALITY OF PETROLEUM IS DETERMINED BY THE AMOUNT OF ..................... IT CONTAINS.
A. PHOSPHOROUS
B. CARBON
C. HYDROGEN
D. SULPHUR
E. OXYGEN

14. A BOY IN A BARBER SHOP SITS BETWEEN 2 PARALLEL MIRRORS. HOW MANY IMAGES OF HIMSELF WILL HE OBSERVE?
A. 2
B. 1
C. ?
D. 200
E. 4

15. WHEN WAS THE STATE OF ISRAEL CREATED OUT OF PALESTINE?
A. 14TH MAY 1948
B. 1OTH DECEMBER 1947
C. 12TH MAY 1945
D. 1ST OCTOBER 1946
E. 23RD AUGUST 1950

16. WHEN WAS THE FIRST REAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM OF GOVERNANCE INTRODUCED IN NIGERIA?
A. 1914
B. 1946
C. 1950
D. 1960
E. 1973

17. THE NUMBER OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN NIGERIA ARE?
A. 680
B. 774
C. 556
D. 747
E. 821

18. WHEN WAS THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION ESTABLISHED?
A. 1918
B. 1945
C. 1946
D. 1920
E. 1953

19. IN WHAT YEAR WAS THE NIGERIAN LIQUEFIED GAS (NLNG) FINAL INVESTMENT DECISION (FID) SIGNED?
A. 1994
B. 1992
C. 1995
D. 1996
E. 1998

20. THE FIRST COMMERCIAL DEEPWATER DISCOVERY IN NIGERIA IS?
A. AGBAMI I
B. AKPO
C. ABO
D. BONGA
E. IKIJA I

....and for canditates interested in geosciences:

1. Shale can act_____ a. As source and reservoir rock for gas b. Only as source for oil c. Only as reservoir of gas d. Only as seal for oil

2. Type III kerogen can_____ a. Generate oil b. Generate gas c. Be described as hydrogen rich and oxygen poor d. Be source from algal mat.

3. Briefly describe the classification of oil field water.

4. What do you understand by “gas hydrate”?

5. Surface occurrence of petroleum in Nigeria are_______ a. Oil and bitumen shales b.mud volcanoes c. Oil shale d. Bituminous sand dyke e. Disseminated deposit